52
The nineteenth-century discovery of numbers called “quaternions” gave mathematicians a way to describe rotations in space, forever changing physics and math.
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Competition, oversupply, and unpredictable weather has caused the price of wild berries in Maine to hit a 30-year low.

Another wild blueberry season is wrapping up on the east coast of the United States, but growers aren't happy. The harvest in Maine was down 50 percent this year, due to summer drought and random freezing temperatures, and the season ended in late August, which is earlier than usual.

For an industry that is embedded in New England's culture and has even been memorialized in children's classic literature (the 1948 Caldecott Honor-winning picture book by Robert McCloskey, 'Blueberries for Sal'), it is painful to see it crippled by competition and price drops, irregular weather patterns and fungal disease.
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It's the age-old question that always sparks debate.

The “chicken or egg” paradox was first proposed by philosophers in Ancient Greece to describe the problem of determining cause and effect.

Now a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the Néel Institute has shown that the chicken and the egg can both come first.

Still don’t get it? The answer lies in quantum physics. We’ll let the experts explain.
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Don't worry. This isn't an announcement of a new invasion from elsewhere, but a leap into the past in the Paleozoic: the time of giant insects, 100 million years before the dinosaurs, during which insects also had their T-Rex: Carboniferous and Permian giant dragonflies that terrorised the skies of those times, sometimes call "griffenflies"). A short trip back in time to a kind of another Earth in search of insects that were already major actors of the ecosystems.

This unique specimen in the world is a giant dragonfly that lived 300 million years ago in the huge equatorial warm forests that at the time covered the center of France. It was almost 40 cm long and 70 cm wingspan. It is one of the largest known insects.

During the Carboniferous (from 360 to 299 million years ago), other insects were also very large, such as cockroaches (Dictyoptera) and Palaeodictyoptera. This gigantism has long been explained by the high percentage of oxygen in the air (twice the current level, i.e.,
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nearly 40%) which would have favoured the physiology of flight during this period. Explanations based on ecological factors more related to the absence of flying predatory vertebrates at this time would explain these large insect sizes. A combination of both phenomena should be considered.

For many millions of years, during Carboniferous, large quantities of plant debris accumulated in shallow waters. Their burial, protected from the air by the sediments that contained them, contributed to the formation of very fossiliferous layers of coals.

Meganeura was described and named by Charles Brongniart in 1885, shortly after its discovery. This dragonfly from the depths of time is the emblem of the city of Commentry in the Auvergne region, the former mining town where it was found. It was long emblematic of the giant insects of the Palaeozoic, remaining the largest known insect until the discovery of a Meganeuridae in the United States in the middle of the 20th century, which are a few centimeters larger.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-09-paleozoic-era-giant-dragonflies.html
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Michael Faraday wondered if electrical conductors moving through magnetic fields might lead to a natural source of electricity- turns out it might.
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Before too much longer, you could start seeing NASA astronauts' smiling faces on cereal boxes, and Mars rovers emblazoned with corporate logos just like race cars.
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On August 21 last year, the US came to a standstill to watch the incredibly rare alignment of the Moon sliding in front of the Sun, completely blocking its rays.

But for a team of scientists, the anticipation of this total solar eclipse was perhaps even more intense as they waited to see the shapes in the aura of plasma flaring out from behind the Moon.

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Earth rotates the way it does because of how it formed early in the history of the solar system, but all things in space rotate.
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The United Launch Alliance will send up its most powerful rocket, the Delta IV Heavy, along with a spacecraft bound for the Sun. On top of the rocket is NASA’s Parker Solar Probe, embarking on the first ever mission into the Sun’s atmosphere, known as the corona.
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A tick species called the longhorned tick that's native to Asia has now spread to the United States, and it's popping up in numerous places along the East Coast, according to U.S. officials.
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These ancient fossils may be the oldest documented evidence of life on land, pushing back direct evidence for terrestrial life by about 500 million years.
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After more than 25 years, Hubble is still capturing stunning photos of far-away astronomical objects and advancing human knowledge. It can also take a peek at objects in our own solar system. Both Saturn and Mars have swung close to Earth recently, and Hubble got some new images.
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NBC will celebrate the longest total lunar eclipse of the 21st century with an awesome digital special on all things space.
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For more than 20 years, a team of astronomers has tracked a single star whipping around the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy at up to 25 million kilometers per hour, or 3% of the speed of light. Now, the team says the close encounter has put Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity to its most rigorous test yet for massive objects, with the light from the star stretched in a way not prescribed by Newtonian gravity. In a study announced today, the team says it has detected a distinctive indicator of Einstein’s general theory of relativity called “gravitational redshift,” in which the star’s light loses energy because of the black hole’s intense gravity.
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There's something just so incredibly satisfying about the idea of the Kármán line – the invisible boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space. Situated at an altitude of 100 kilometres (62 miles), it represents the point at which aeronautics end, and astronautics take over.
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Get out your binoculars and your passports — that is, if you want to catch the longest total lunar eclipse of our lifetimes. Well, at least, of the century. On Friday, the celestial event will turn the moon from its normal pearly white into a beguiling red orange for more than 100 minutes, NASA says. But the bad news? It won’t be visible from North America. If you want to catch sight of this historic (and likely stunning) event, you’ll need to be in the Middle East, south or eastern Africa, or western and southeast Asia and India. And even then, you’ll have to hope that the weather holds.

Folks in those regions will actually be able to see the totality of the lunar eclipse — that is to say that for about an hour and 42 minutes, they’ll be able to see the blood red moon. However, the entire lunar eclipse, which begins when the moon moves through the Earth’s stratosphere, will be longer still at six hours and 13 minutes.

Read more at: https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/friday
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-total-lunar-eclipse/
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Dreams can be fuzzy, and not just because they can be hard to remember. They’re hard to study, too. Ever since Sigmund Freud hypothesized that daytime experiences influence the content of our dreams, psychologists and neuroscientists have grappled with how our dreams connect to our waking lives. And new research suggests there’s a scientific way to associate dreams with specific periods of waking time.

According to a paper published June 4 in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, scientists found that they can use certain biomarkers in people who are dreaming to identify when they formed the memories that made up the contents of their dreams. To figure this out, researchers recorded the brainwaves of 20 students with an electroencephalograph throughout several nights of sleep. They woke the students up during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep and asked them to report on what they were dreaming. They then matched the contents of the dreams to 10 da
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ys of personal diaries the students kept during the previous days — while they were awake, of course.

Read more at: https://www.inverse.com/article/47351-how-can-you-tell-what-someone-is-dreaming-scientists-gaze-into-brains
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NASA is preparing to launch a historic probe to "touch the sun" — which scientists hope will crack decades-long mysteries about our star — in early August.

The mission, called the Parker Solar Probe, will loop around the sun 24 times, flying within the star's million-degree atmosphere, called the corona.

The spacecraft's daunting flight plan isn't just a daring lark; it's a necessity to answer questions about the sun that have stumped scientists for decades. In some cases, their answers will affect our lives on Earth. But scientists are also taking advantage of convenient access to the sun to understand all stars by proxy.

Read more at: https://www.space.com/41246-parker-solar-probe-launching-next-month.html
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New findings, published in the journal Astrobiology, suggest that large craters are the prime locations in which to find the building blocks of life on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

Titan is an icy expanse covered by organic molecules, with liquid methane lakes enshrouded by a thick, hazy atmosphere of nitrogen and methane that begs the question: why isn't there life on this strangely Earth-like world? Perhaps it is the balmy -179 degrees Celsius (-300 degrees Fahrenheit) temperature on the surface that would likely prevent any biochemical reactions from taking place. But is there any place on Titan where there might be hope that biomolecules, such as amino acids, could form? One team wanted to find out.

Read more at: https://www.space.com/41228-where-search-signs-life-titan.html
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Two seemingly identical planets have very different life stories, scientists have realized.
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It didn't take long for Mars to become a potentially habitable world, a new study suggests.

The planet-formation process generates a lot of heat, so rocky worlds such as Mars and Earth are covered by oceans of molten rock shortly after they form. Life as we know it cannot get a foothold until these oceans freeze into a crust — and this apparently happened quite early on the Red Planet, the new study reports.

Read more at: https://www.space.com/41068-mars-life-early-start-black-beauty-meteorite.html
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While you're getting ready to celebrate Independence Day with red, white and blue, get ready to see a lot of red in the sky in July. Mars will be at its brightest since 2003, and some skywatchers will be treated to a lengthy lunar eclipse as well.

The Red Planet is just about to reach the part of its orbit called opposition, where it is exactly opposite the sun in Earth's sky. This year, it will also herald Earth's closest view of Mars in 15 years. Earth and Mars orbit the sun at different distances. Since Earth is closer to the sun, it orbits faster than Mars. Once every two years (or thereabouts), the sun, Earth and Mars create a straight line with respect to each other — the opposition.

Read more at: https://www.space.com/41053-mars-opposition-blood-moon-lunar-eclipse-july-2018.html
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As one of 10 finalists of the 3M Young Scientist Challenge, 12-year-old Anna Du will now get the chance to bring her invention to the seas.

One day while visiting Boston Harbor, young Anna Du noticed bits of plastic in the sand. She tried picking them up, but there was so much, she tells Boston25 News, that "it just seemed impossible to clean it all up."

What's a 12-year-old animal lover concerned about the impact of ocean plastic to do? Get to work on an invention to fix it, naturally.

Which is exactly what Anna has set out to do. And in doing so, she has been selected as one of the 10 finalists for the Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge.

Read more at: https://www.treehugger.com/plastic/genius-6th-grader-invents-device-hunts-harmful-microplastics-ocean.html
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Lasers—used in medicine, manufacturing and made wildly popular by science fiction—are finding a new use in particle physics.

Fermilab scientists and engineers have developed a tool called a laser notcher, which takes advantage of the laser's famously precise targeting abilities to do something unexpected: boost the number of particles that accelerators send to experiments. It's cranked up the lab's particle output considerably—by an incredible 15 percent—giving scientists more opportunities to study nature's tiniest constituents.

Read more: https://phys.org/news/2018-06-laser-technology-success-particle.html
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On the dwarf planet Ceres, organic molecules are more abundant than scientists originally suspected.

Last year, NASA's Dawn spacecraft detected organics, or carbon-based compounds, on the surface of Ceres. The exciting discovery raised the possibility that Ceres might be habitable and even that life could have once existed on the rocky world. And now, a new analysis of the mission data suggests that the patches on the surface of Ceres shown to contain organic material likely harbor even more of those molecules than researchers first thought.

Read more: https://www.space.com/40934-dwarf-planet-ceres-more-organic-molecules.html
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Last week, SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk announced bold plans to combine the technologies of his two biggest companies by placing rocket thrusters on future specialized models of Tesla’s Roadster. The thrusters won’t actually combust, according to Musk; instead, they will expel highly pressurized cold air, giving the Tesla an extra boost in acceleration. It’s a move the might technically work, but it also baffles industry experts and engineers: the thrusters won’t be very efficient and probably won’t be street legal.

Read more: https://www.theverge.com/2018/6/16/17459224/tesla-roadster-elon-musk-spacex-falcon-copv
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I stand in front of a lanky two-legged robot stomping along a treadmill. I watch, all impressed, until the researcher next to me tells me to trip it. The thing looks expensive, so I hesitate. Really, he tells me, it’s OK. And he probably knows better than I do, so I drag my boot along its shin like a good soccer trip.

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The levels of X-ray radiation streaming from Alpha Centauri A and B — two of the three stars in the nearest solar system to our own — are comparable to those emitted by our own sun, a new study reports.
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A team of researchers from the U.K., Germany and Russia has found evidence of magnetism at the edges of graphene. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the researchers describe how they made their discovery and why they believe it is important.
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Now, as our understanding of the outer solar system has grown, we’re facing new questions. And it’s renewing talks about planets past Neptune. And not Pluto, Eris, Makemake, or the other fascinating and dynamic dwarf planets that we've already identified—but undiscovered objects possibly Mars-sized or larger.
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Glioblastoma multiforme, a type of brain tumor, is one of the most difficult-to-treat cancers. Only a handful of drugs are approved to treat glioblastoma, and the median life expectancy for patients diagnosed with the disease is less than 15 months.

MIT researchers have now devised a new drug-delivering nanoparticle that could offer a better way to treat glioblastoma. The particles, which carry two different drugs, are designed so that they can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and bind directly to tumor cells. One drug damages tumor cells' DNA, while the other interferes with the systems cells normally use to repair such damage.
81
Fast Radio Bursts (FBRs) have fascinated astronomers ever since the first one was detected in 2007. This event was named the "Lorimer Burst" after it discoverer, Duncan Lorimer from West Virginia University.
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Mathematicians have disproved the strong cosmic censorship conjecture. Their work answers one of the most important questions in the study of general relativity
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A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the Earth's magnetic field.
88
Over the course of their careers, biologists develop a huge mental library of cell structures and their corresponding data. Investigating specific areas of a living cell involves a piecemeal approach, identifying how some parts work with others and spending time on cell labelling. But now, the Allen Institute for Cell Science has launched the first predictive 3D model of a live human cell -- the Allen Integrated Cell -- and it could be "a total game changer", according to researchers.
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Astronomers have spotted a carbon-rich asteroid in the icy region beyond Neptune called the Kuiper Belt — the first such asteroid ever found to be exiled from the inner solar system.
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Scientists have spotted the first solid evidence that some neutron stars, the collapsed remnants of exploded stars, can rapidly cool their cores by emitting neutrinos. The result adds to evidence that scientists are gathering to understand the ultradense matter that is squished deep within a neutron star’s center.

Read more: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/neutron-stars-shed-neutrinos-cool-down-quickly
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For decades, numerous studies have shown that strict, low-calorie-intake diets could be the key to having a longer, healthier life.
85
Miguel Zumalacárregui knows what it feels like when theories die. In September 2017, he was at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Saclay, near Paris, to speak at a meeting about dark energy and modified gravity. The official news had not yet broken about an epochal astronomical measurement—the detection, by gravitational wave detectors as well as many other telescopes, of a collision between two neutron stars—but a controversial tweet had lit a firestorm of rumor in the astronomical community, and excited researchers were discussing the discovery in hushed tones.
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NASA's Hubble Space Telescope photographed the surviving companion of a supernova that exploded 17 years ago. The new image suggests that some supernovas originate in double-star systems, and it is the first photograph ever taken of a surviving companion.
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Soviet-era cosmonaut Vladimir Lyakhov, who logged almost a year in Earth orbit living aboard three different space stations, has died at the age of 76.

The Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, where Lyakhov prepared for his three space missions in Star City, Russia, confirmed he died on Thursday (April 19), noting only that it was sudden.

Read more: https://www.space.com/40456-vladimir-lyhakov-cosmonaut-dies-at-76.html
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Emperor penguins are excellent divers, and scientists in Antarctica have clocked the world's longest dive from the aquatic bird.
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Britain’s new generation of street lights risk dramatically increasing rates of breast and prostate cancer, according to a new study.
83
One of the ultimate goals of modern physics is to unlock the power of superconductivity, where electricity flows with zero resistance at room temperature.
81
A winter scene of a cloudy night shows a bright meteor lighting up the sky above a small lagoon that reflects the greenish color of the sky.
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By studying bacteria and yeast, researchers at MIT have discovered that vastly different types of cells still share fundamental similarities, conserved across species and refined over time. More specifically, these cells contain the same proportion of specialized proteins, known as enzymes, which coordinate chemical reactions within the cell.
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A used SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket successfully launched 10 new Iridium Next communications satellites into orbit from California's Vandenberg Air Force Base Friday (March 30), one year to the day of the company's first used rocket launch and landing.
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Scott Wing had spent more than a decade in the badlands of Wyoming's Bighorn Basin, most of it thirsty, sunburned, and down on his hands and knees, digging endlessly through the dirt.
78
FAU scientists discovered that there were signs that the Permian-Tirassic mass extinction event was approaching a long time before it actually happened. Several species of ammonoids such as Paratirolites were lost and others became steadily smaller over a period of 700,000 years
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NASA has been without a permanent administrator for almost 14 months, which is a record. How does this situation affect the space agency and American space policy?
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Octopuses have three hearts: one pumps blood around the body; the other two pump blood to the gills. The reason for this impressive cardiac hardware probably comes down to the unusual composition of their blood.
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Some 70,000 years ago, when humans and Neanderthals shared the planet, an alien star streaked through the outer edges of our solar system and jostled its contents, astronomers say. In a study of hundreds of solar system objects with unusual orbits, the scientists also single out eight comets that may also have interstellar origins.
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The death of renowned physicist Stephen Hawking, reported today (March 14), prompted accolades from across NASA, including from its acting administrator and many astronauts.
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About 74,000 years ago, a large chunk of a Pacific island exploded. It sent ash and other debris around the world, including to the southern tip of Africa, where it would be found by a team of international scientists and entered as the latest data point in one of the hottest debates in paleoanthropology (I know):
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Moving to other planets, like Musk proposes, could rewrite us on the genetic level.
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Doctors from Yale University used bacteria-killing viruses collected from a Connecticut pond to successfully treat a man with a bacterial infection.
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Neutron stars aren’t the twinkle-twinkle kind you typically see in the night sky. They’re stellar corpses, and incredibly dense sources of gravity, with perhaps 1.5 times the mass of the sun packed into an area less than a dozen miles across. Around 9,000 light years away from Earth, one neutron stars seems to have befriended a red dwarf. And scientists observed the new relationship beginning in a flash of energy.
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A popular YouTube channel is trying to convince viewers that photos of an avalanche on an island near Antarctica depict an alien spaceship crash site.
87
Birdwatchers are rushing to a town in Alabama in hopes of glimpsing a one-in-a-million look at a yellow Northern cardinal, after a local resident posted images to social media of the bird.
87
A new species of shark, the Atlantic sixgill, has been discovered in Belize, the Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas.
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After 12 years of experimental effort, a team of scientists, led by ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration astronomer Judd Bowman, has detected the fingerprints of the earliest stars in the universe. Using radio signals, the detection provides the first evidence for the oldest ancestors in our cosmic family tree, born by a mere 180 million years after the universe began.
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The world's newest species of water bear has eight legs and eggs covered with tentacles. And it was discovered in a parking lot.
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There’s a planet just over 4 light-years away orbiting a star at just the right distance—not too close, not too far—that it could support liquid water on its surface. We don’t know much about its atmosphere, if it even has one, and we’re trying to figure out more about its interior. There’s a lot more to uncover, but it sure sounds like it could be a promising place to find some alien neighbors, right?

If only we could figure out how to deal with the massive stellar flares.

A study published this week in The Astrophysical Journal Letters found that instead of a nice warm ring of dust around the star—which could indicate a cozy nursery of planets, as a study last fall reported—there was actually a huge stellar flare. (That’s the same as a solar flare, but on a star other than our own Sun).
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NASA’s InSight probe, due for a May launch, should cut to the heart of what lurks in the Red planet’s deep interior. In the process, the mission should give planetary scientists a better handle on rocky planet formation and evolution everywhere.
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The Andromeda galaxy is much less massive than previously thought, which means the collision between our galaxy and Andromeda could end in a tie.
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A time-lapse video shows an orange streak of light from a Super Blue Moon rising behind a windmill in Sesimbra, Portugal.
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The expansion of the Universe only significantly affects space and time on scales bigger even than entire clusters of galaxies.
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A new analysis of data from two lunar missions finds evidence that the Moon's water is widely distributed across the surface and is not confined to a particular region or type of terrain. The water appears to be present day and night, though it's not necessarily easily accessible.
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Researchers think they've identified some key ways the brains of superagers are different than the brains of those who experience normal or accelerated cognitive decline.
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Even with all the photos that have been taken of space, there are still new things to be seen.
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A collision with an object in its home system most likely sent 'Oumuamua, the solar system's first known visitor from another planetary system, into an out-of-control spin that will last for billions of years.
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Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. These are sufficient to convert a temperature difference into electricity via the thermoelectric effect, which has now been demonstrated by a team at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.
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DNA analysis is giving clues to how the vampire bat can survive on blood alone.

The bat can drink up to half its weight in blood a day unlike other relatives, which dine on fruit, nectar or insects.

Blood is low in nutrients and can harbour deadly viruses.

Vampire bats have key differences in genes involved in immunity and food metabolism compared with other bats.

The researchers say the bat's gut microbes are also distinct.

They found evidence of more than 280 types of bacteria in the bat's droppings that would have made most other mammals unwell.
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The largest black holes grow faster than their galaxies, according to new research.

Two studies from separate groups of researchers find that so-called supermassive black holes are bigger than astronomers would have calculated from their surroundings alone. Supermassive black holes are enormous gravity wells found in the center of large galaxies.
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The war goes on. In a series of deadly raids day and night, the African Matabele ant sets out from its bunkered nests to hunt its prey: phalanxes of termite soldiers, assembled in number at feeding sites.
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A new technique for measuring the mass of galaxies has been applied to our closest galactic neighbour - and it has found that the Andromeda galaxy is roughly the same size as the Milky Way, and not two to three times bigger as was previously thought.

This means, when the two galaxies merge in about 4 billion years' time, the Milky Way won't be fully consumed by the Andromeda galaxy as previous models suggested.

Led by astrophysicist Prajwal Kafle from the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, the team found that the mass of the Andromeda galaxy is around 800 billion times the mass of the Sun, a measurement also known as a solar mass.
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An Iranian military advisor recently claimed that lizards could attract radioactivity and detect uranium mines, but that claim makes no sense, experts said.
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Scientists have noticed a reduced incidence of cancer in patients suffering from the hereditary neurodegenerative condition Huntington’s disease. Now a team has uncovered how the disease could also be killing cancer cells, and how this could be harnessed for a new cancer treatment.
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NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is making history again, this time one-upping the legendary Voyager 1.

New Horizons is the probe that flew by Pluto on July 14, 2015, and beamed back those amazing pictures. Now, it's zipping along at more than 700,000 miles (1.1 million kilometers) each day -- moving farther and farther out into our solar system.
On December 5, 2017, it broke a record set by Voyager 1 in 1990.
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Almost exactly five years ago, a truck-size celestial rockunexpectedly exploded in the atmosphere above Chelyabinsk, Russia, on Feb. 15, 2013. As town officials dealt with broken glass and hundreds injured, people worldwide asked why nobody spotted the 51-foot-across (17 meters) object sooner, in time to warn residents.

The same question could be asked of another asteroid that will whiz harmlessly past the Earth today (Feb. 9). NASA said this object, nicknamed 2018 CB, may very well be bigger than one that broke up over Chelyabinsk. The asteroid was only spotted on Sunday (Feb. 4) by the Catalina Sky Survey. Early estimates of 2018 CB's size range between 50 and 130 feet (15 and 40 m) in diameter. The object will fly by Earth at about 5:30 p.m. EST (2:30 p.m. PST) at less than 20 percent of the distance from the Earth to the moon. That's about 238,855 miles (384,400 km) from us.
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Toads might want to be careful what meal they catch with their sticky, pink tongues. It could be a toxic beetle that makes them throw up … and then scurries away to tell the tale, a new study from Japan finds.
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Some physicists have proposed that maybe the universe has one or more extra dimensions that show up on very large scales, making the universe accelerate. In these theories, light and matter are confined to the four dimensions we know, but gravity “leaks” into the other dimensions. As a result, gravity gets a little weaker the farther out in space we look, but light shouldn’t be affected by the extra dimensions.
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Climate change could unleash 15 million gallons of toxic mercury trapped in permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere alone.

According to a new study published Feb. 5 in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, theremay be more than 15 million gallons (58 million liters) of mercury buried in the permafrost of the Northern Hemisphere — roughly twice as much mercury as can be found in the rest of Earth's soils, ocean and atmosphere combined. And if global temperatures continue to rise, all that mercury could come pouring out.
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There's a "midnight cherry" Tesla Roadster hurtling toward deep space right now, the first-ever payload of the Falcon Heavy rocket. It's worth asking why this is happening, and Live Science has. But given that it is happening, it's also worth asking what is going to happen to this electric sportscar condemned to what could be a billion-year elliptical journey through outer space.

The first factor that will determine the Roadster's fate, of course, will be the success or failure of the spacecraft lofting it out of Earth's gravity well.
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Thirty years after nations banded together to phase out chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, the gaping hole in Earth’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation shield above Antarctica is shrinking. But new findings suggest that at midlatitudes, where most people live, the ozone layer in the lower stratosphere is growing more tenuous—for reasons that scientists are struggling to fathom.

Several recent studies, including one published last month in Geophysical Research Letters, point to a robust recovery of stratospheric ozone concentrations over Antarctica—the long-awaited payoff after the Montreal Protocol in 1987 mandated a global phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-eating compounds.
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Millions around the globe watched Elon Musk's SpaceX launch one of world's most powerful rockets. DW explains what you need to know about the historic launch.
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A study led by University of Colorado Boulder researchers provides new insight into the Moon's excessive equatorial bulge, a feature that solidified in place over four billion years ago as the Moon gradually distanced itself from the Earth.
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Cretaceous amber has ponied up another spectacular find, and something rarely seen before: tiny arachnids, with mobile tails longer than their bodies.

The creatures were encased in tree resin roughly 100 million years ago, during the mid-Cretaceous, and the discovery shows that the extraordinary family of arachnids could have roamed our planet for at least 280 million years.
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After nearly seven years of varying concepts, redesigns, and delays, SpaceX is poised to launch the Falcon Heavy rocket next week on its maiden flight. Last week, SpaceX performed a hold-down firing of the massive rocket’s 27 engines, creating a towering exhaust plume and jolting the space coast with over 5 million pounds of thrust. It was the most powerful engine test ever conducted at Kennedy Space Center—and with a successful liftoff, the Falcon Heavy would be the most powerful launch vehicle in the world.
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On a ho-hum day some 12,800 years ago, the Earth had emerged from another ice age. Things were warming up, and the glaciers had retreated.

Out of nowhere, the sky was lit with fireballs. This was followed by shock waves.

Fires rushed across the landscape, and dust clogged the sky, cutting off the sunlight. As the climate rapidly cooled, plants died, food sources were snuffed out, and the glaciers advanced again. Ocean currents shifted, setting the climate into a colder, almost "ice age" state that lasted an additional thousand years.
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A University of Oklahoma astrophysics team has discovered for the first time a population of planets beyond the Milky Way galaxy. Using microlensing—an astronomical phenomenon and the only known method capable of discovering planets at truly great distances from the Earth among other detection techniques—OU researchers were able to detect objects in extragalactic galaxies that range from the mass of the Moon to the mass of Jupiter.
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Earth's magnetic poles, whatever they're doing, are not going to spark chaos and kill us all — a scenario making the rounds online right now.

According to the Australian news site news.com.au, a magnetic flip would not only cause massive blackouts, "even flushing the toilet could become impossible."

As reported by Undark, Daniel Baker, the director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder, is suggesting a reversal would render parts of the planet uninhabitable (though Baker is not directly quoted saying this).
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Scientists who identified specific brain cells in mice that control anxiety say the discovery could provide insights that might eventually help people with panic disorder and social phobia.

The finding, reported Wednesday in the journal Neuron, could eventually lead to better treatments for anxiety disorders, which affect nearly 1 in 5 adults in the U.S.

"The therapies we have now have significant drawbacks," says Mazen Kheirbek, an assistant professor at the University of California, San Francisco and an author of the study. "This is another target that we can try to move the field forward for finding new therapies."

But the research is at an early stage and lab findings in animals don't always pan out in humans.

The discovery of anxiety cells is just the latest example of the "tremendous progress" scientists have made toward understanding how anxiety works in the brain, says Joshua Gordon, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, which helped fund the research
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A team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in the U.S., France, Cameroon and Gabon has found evidence that suggests that orange dwarf crocodiles living in caves in Gabon might be evolving into a new species. In their paper published in the African Journal of Ecology, the group describes their study of the unique crocodiles and their attempts to compare them with similar crocodiles living just outside the cave, and what they found by doing so.

The orange dwarf crocodiles living in Abanda caves in Gabon were first discovered back in 2008 and confirmed in 2010. Soon thereafter, it was discovered that older specimens had an orange hue due to the acidity of the bat guano in the water in which they lived. But what intrigued the members of this team was the crocs' differences from their relatives still living just outside the caves.
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The supermoon lunar eclipse on Jan. 31 is shaping up to be a spectacular spectacle as well as a boon for moon researchers, according to NASA moon scientist Noah Petro.

Space.com caught up with Petro, deputy project scientist for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, about his advice for viewing the moon and to learn more about what he hopes to learn from the moon's journey into Earth's shadow, which happens to occur Jan. 31 at the same time as a supermoon and a Blue Moon.
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Naked mole rats may look like wrinkly skin sacks, but they have some pretty bizarre superpowers, including a total immunity to cancer.
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Earlier this month, the New Zealand-based private spaceflight company Rocket Lab successfully delivered its first orbital payload.

Rocket Lab's Electron rocket released, along with three commercial satellites, an art installation-as-satellite called the Humanity Star.
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In short, gravity is a fundamental interaction between objects with mass. Yes, any two objects that have mass will have a gravitational force pulling them together. The magnitude of this gravitational force depends on the distance between the objects. The further apart the objects get, the weaker the gravitational force. The magnitude of this force also depends on the masses of the two objects. Greater mass means a greater force
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Thanks to advancements in DNA and RNA sequencing, biologists are incredibly good at knowing how much of a gene's code is at any moment being copied into RNA messages, the first step in making protein. But they're not so good at figuring out how quickly those RNA messages are actually read from end to end at cellular factories called ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized.

Now, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), Stony Brook University (SBU) and Johns Hopkins University (JHU) has released software that can help biologists more accurately determine this. They used single-celled yeast and the common microbe E. coli to demonstrate their new program, called Scikit-Ribo.
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There are a lot of misconceptions when it comes to controlling mosquitoes.

Despite what you may have heard, the food you eat won't affect your chances of being bitten, and neither will buying a bunch of citronella candles.